Origins of the early state
A new phase of political development in the Eastern Gangetic plains started when Koshala, Avanti, Vatsa and Magadha mahajanapadas established their hegemony over others.
Rise of Magadha
Magadha rose into prominence under the rule of Bimbisara of Haryanka dynasty. Most probably, he overthrew the Brihadrathas from Magadha and assumed the title “Srinika” after his accession. He ruled Magadha from 544 B.C. to 493 B.C. His greatest achievement was the establishment of Magadhan Empire.
He followed fourfold policy in order to fulfill his programme of imperial expansion.
- Matrimonial Alliance
- Friendly Relations
By adopting the policy of matrimonial alliance, Bimbisara tried to augment his power. He married Kosaladevi, daughter of king Mahakosala of Kosala, received the Kasi village as dowry, which yielded revenue of 1, 00,000. “Mahavamsa” mentions his marriage with Chellana the daughter of Chetak, the Lichchavi chief of Vaisali. He then married Vasavi, a princess of Videha in the northward.
He also married Khema, the daughter of king of Modra in Central Punjab. The establishment of matrimonial relations with these states added glory to the Magadhna Empire. It also paved the way for the expansion of Magadhan Empire and westward.
The next policy of Bimbisara for the expansion of Magadhan Empire was the policy of conquest. Bimbisara led a campaign against the kingdom of Anga and defeated its king Brahmadatta. Anga along with its capital city Champa, was annexed to the Magadhan empire.
Friendly Relation with distant Neighbours
As a farsighted diplomat, Bimbisara had followed the policy of friendship towards the distant neighbours to win their co-operation for the safety and security of his empire. He received an embassy and letter from Pukkusati, the ruler of Gandhar with which Pradyota had fought unsuccessfully.
Magadha’s most formidable enemy was Chanda Pradyota Mahasena of Avanti who fought with Bimbisara but ultimately the two thought it wise to become friends. He also sent his physician Jivak to Ujjain when Pradyota was attacked by jaundice.
By introducing a highly efficient system of administration, Bimbisara consolidated his conquests. His administration was found to have been really well organised and efficient. The high officers were divided into three classes, viz. executive, military and judicial.
The ‘Sabarthakas’ were responsible for the management of general administration. “Senanayaka Mahamatras” were in charge of military affairs. “Vyavaharika Mahamatra’s” were in charge of judicial-administration. Provincial administration was also well organised.
The head of provincial administration was “Uparaja”. The villages enjoyed rural autonomy. “Gramika” was the head of the village administration. The penal laws were severe.
Bimbisara also developed the means of communication by constructing good roads. He is said to have established a new capital at Rajagriha situated on the outskirts of the old capital Girivraja. It is said that his kingdom had consisted of 80,000 villages.
Follower of Buddhism
He was a devotee of Buddha. He donated a garden named “Belubana” to the Buddhist Sangha. According to the Buddhist chronicle Bimbisara ruled Magadha from 544 B.C. to 493 B.C.
Ajatasatru (492-460 BC)
His son Ajatasatru who had killed him and seized the throne for himself succeeded Bimbisara. The reign of Ajatasatru witnessed the high watermark of Bimbisara dynasty. From the very beginning, Ajatasatru pursued the policy of expansion and conquest.
Conquests of Ajatasatru
He began a prolonged war with Prasenjit of Kosala who had revoked the gift of the Kasi village made to Bimbisara. The war continued for some time with varying success to both sides till Prasenjit ended it by giving his daughter, Vajira Kumari in marriage to Ajatasatru and leaving him in possession of Kasi.
The next achievement of Ajatasatru was the conquest of Lichchavis of Vaisali. Chetak, chief of Lichchavis had formed a strong confederacy comprising 36 republics in order to fight Magadha. According to jaina sources, before his death, Bimbisara gave his elephant “Seyanaga” “Sechanaka” and two large bejewelled necklaces, one each to his sons Halla and Vehalla who were born of their Lichahhavi mother, Chellana.
Conflict with Lichchhavis
Chetak had given them political assylum. After his accession, Ajatasatru requested chetak to surrender them. However, Chetak refused to extradite Chetaka’s stepbrothers. So the conflict between Ajatasatru and Lichchhavis became inevitable. According to Buddhist text Ajatasatru had entered into an agreement with Lichchhavis to divide among them the gems extracted from a mine at the foot of the hill near the river Ganges. But the Lichchhavis deprived Ajatasatru of his share. But Dr. H.C. Raychoudhury points out that the most potent cause of war was the common movement among the republican states against the rising imperialism of Magadha.
Ajatasatru invaded their territory and it took him full sixteen years to destroy Lichchhavis. In this war, he used some new weapons and devices like “mahasilakantaka” and “rathamushala” to overpower the enemy. Ultimately, Lichchhavi was annexed to the Magadhan territory.
His son Udayin who ruled for sixteen years succeeded Ajatasatru. The Buddhist texts describe him as a patricide whereas the jaina literature mentions him as a devoted son to his father. Udayin built the city of Pataliputra at the fort of Patalagrama which commanded the strategically and commercial highway of eastern India. During his rule, Avanti became jealous of the ascendancy of Magadha and a contest between the two started for mastery of Northern India.
It is said that assassin engaged by Palaka, the king of Avanti, has murdered Udayin. According to Ceylonese chronicle three kings namely Aniruddha, Manda and Nagadasaka succeeded Udayin.
End of Haryankas
The Ceylonese chronicle describes that all the three kings were patricide. The people resented their rule, revolted against the last king Nagadasaka, and raised an amatya Sisunaga on the throne of Magadha. With this restoration, the rule of Haryanka dynasty came to end and the rule of Sisunaga dynasty came into being.
Sisunaga served as the viceroy of Kasi before he ascended the throne of Magadha. He established his capital at Girivaraja. His greatest achievement was the conquest and annexation of Avanti. This brought to an end the hundred year’s rivalry between Magadha and Avanti.
Probably he had annexed Vatsa and Kosala Kingdoms to Magadha. Towards the later part of his regain he temporarily shifted his capital to Vaisali. His son Kalasoka or Kakavarna succeeded Sisunaga.
Kalasoka or Kakavarna.
The reign of Kalasoka is important for two events, viz., the transfer of Magadha capital from Girivaraja to Pataliputra and holding of the second Buddhist Congress at Vaisali. Very unfortunately, he lost his life in a palace revolution, which brought the Nandas upon the throne of Magadha.
End of Shishunaga Dynasty
The usurper was probably Mahapadma Nanda, the founder of Nanda dynasty and he killed the ten sons of Kalasoka who ruled jointly. Thus, the Sisunaga dynasty was followed by the new dynasty of the Nandas.
Nanda Dynasty:Mahapadma Nanda
The rule of Nandas marked the beginning of a new epoch in the history of Ancient India. Under the Nandas the provincial kingdom of Magadha was transformed into an empire. According to R.K. Mookheijee, Mahapadmananda was the “first historical emperor of India.” Mahapadmananda usurped the throne after murdering Kalasoka and his sons.
Origin of Nandas
The ancestry of Mahapadmananda is a controversial question. There are two fold versions of his origin. According to the Puranas, he was the son of Kalashoka by a sudra woman. The jaina work Parisishtaparvana describes him as the son of a courtesan by a barber.
Mahapadma Nanda ruled over Magadha for twenty eight years from 367 B.C. to 338 B.C. He established a strong government in Magadha. Being the ruler of a prosperous country, Mahapadmananda was destined to realize the dream of Magadhan imperialism. The puranas describe him as “Sarva Kashtriyantaka” or the destroyer of all the kshatriyas and the Ekrat or sole soverign.
From this, it is implied that he uprooted the kshatriya dynasties such as Aikshavakus of Kosala, Panchalas of the Upper Ganges and Doab the Kasis, Haihayas of Narmada Valley, Kalingas of Orissa, Asmakas of Godavari Valley in Hyderabad, Kurus of Upper Ganges region on the confines of Punjab, Maithilas of Mithila of Nepalese Terai, Saurasenas of Mathura on the banks of the Jumna and Vitihotras of Western India adjacent to Avanti.
Annexation of Kalinga
He conquered Kalinga and it is proved by two passages of Hati-Gumpha Inscription of Kharavela. It is known from Hathigumpha Inscription that Nandaraja (Mahapadmananda) constructed some irrigation dams in the province and carried away the statue of first Jina from Kalinga as a war trophy.
Geographical Boundries of Empire
The southern frontier of the Nanda Empire extended up to Godavari Valley in the Deccan, which is proved by the existence of a city called “Nav Nandar Dehra” on the Godavari. Thus under Mahapadma Nanda Magadhan empire was extended from Kuru country in the north to the Godavari Valley in the south and from Magadha in the east to the Narmada on the west.
The Successors of Mahapadma Nanda
The Buddhist work Maha Bodhivamsa gives a list of the Nava Nandas in which Mahapandma Nanda and eight others are included. It is generally accepted by the scholars that the term Nava means nine and that the total number of kings of Nanda dynasty is nine. The Buddhist texts describe all the nine Nanda Kings as brothers. But the Puranas describe Mahapadma as the father and the eight Nandas as his sons.
The Puranas have described that eight sons of Mahapadma Nanda ruled Magadha for twelve years. The Mahabodhivamsa mentions the name of the last Nanda king as Dhana Nanda who was a contemporary of Alexander the Great. He had a passionate love for hoarding treasures.
Fall of Nandas
Inspite of his power and wealth, Dhana Nanda lost the support of the people. He became unpopular among his people for three reasons, which ultimately brought his downfall.
Firstly, he taxed people heavily in order to meet the expenses of his vast army and to satisfy his lust for wealth.
Secondly, the low origin and anti-Kshatriya policy of the Nandas coupled with their leaning towards jainism created a number of enemies who were instrumental in bringing their downfall.
Thirdly, the people could find a leader in Chandragupta Maurya and overthrew the last Nanda king from the throne.